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AQA | Chemistry | Subject content | Organic chemistry

The most common and commercially available BFC comprise esters (-nitrophenyl, pentafluorophenyl, -hydroxysuccinimide, sulfo--hydroxysuccinimide), isothiocyanates, maleimides, hydrazides, α-haloamides for the reaction with nucleophilic functional groups (-NH2, -SH, -OH) of vector molecules and formation of amide, urea, thiourea, Schiff-base, or thioester bond []. Methods have been developed for the conjugation with peptides by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) resulting in defined position and number of chelate moieties. The outcome of the conjugation in solution wherein peptides and proteins comprise several reactive sites is very often a mixture of bioconjugate molecules with various content of the chelator. Such heterogeneity may cause the interpretation ambiguity of the performance of such imaging agents. Regioselective conjugation to antibodies was achieved by enzymatic reaction with lysine and glutamine residues using bacterial and human tissue transglutaminase as catalysts [].

Over the past decade, a number of synthetic routes for producing HAp powders have been developed

The rates of the decomposition reactions of chlorine increase as the solution becomes more alkaline, and these reactions can theoretically produce chlorite and chlorate (ClO3-); they occur during the electrolysis of chloride (Cl-) solutions when the anodic and cathodic compartments are not separated, in which case the chlorine formed at the anode can react with the alkali formed at the cathode.

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However, production of chlorine dioxide, its decomposition and reaction with NOM lead to the formation of by-products such as chlorite (ClO2-), a compound that is of health concern.

Reactions of organic compounds can be explained using mechanisms

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