combinatorial chemical synthesis
To produce a substance by chemical synthesis.
chemical synthesis - translation - English-Arabic Dictionary
In science it is necessary to know exactly what we are talking about, so before we can even begin to consider matter from a chemical point of view, we need to know something about its composition; is the stuff I am looking at a single substance, or is it a mixture? (We will get into the details of the definitions elsewhere, but for the moment you probably already have a fair understanding of the distinction; think of a sample of crystalline salt (sodium chloride) as opposed to a of salt in water— a mixture of salt and water.)
An equation of this kind does not imply that the reactants A and B will change entirely into the products C and D, although in many cases this will be what appears to happen. Most chemical reactions proceed to some inermediate point that yields a mixture of reactants and products.
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Virtually all chemical changes involve the uptake or release of energy, usually in the form of heat. It turns out that these energy changes, which are the province of , serve as a powerful means of predicting whether or not a given reaction can proceed, and to what extent. Moreover, all we need in order to make this prediction is information about the energetic properties of the reactants and products; there is no need to study the reaction itself. Because these are bulk properties of matter, chemical thermodynamics is entirely macroscopic in its outlook.
What the ordinary chemical formula does not tell us is the order in which the component atoms are connected, whether they are grouped into discrete units () or are two- or three dimensional extended structures, as is the case with solids such as ordinary salt. The microscopic aspect of composition is , which in its greatest detail reveals the relative locations (in two or three dimensional space) of each atom within the minimum collection needed to define the structure of the substance.
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To a chemist, there is a fundamental distinction between a pure substance and a mixture.
But marketers, and through them, the general public, don't hesitate to describe a complex mixture such as peanut butter as "pure". Pure ? It has been known for at least a thousand years that some substances can be broken down by heating or chemical treatment into "simpler" ones, but there is always a limit; we eventually get substances known as that cannot be reduced to any simpler forms by ordinary chemical or physical means. What is our criterion for "simpler"? The most observable (and therefore macroscopic) property is the weight.
bridges the gap between chemical synthesis and chemical engineering by adapting synthetic routes to the efficient, safe, and environmentally-responsible methods for large-scale synthesis. (The design and construction of working plants is the province of .)
Where there was one cell there are two, then four, then eight,..
Synthesis dictionary definition | synthesis defined
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This view of Chemistry is a rather astringent one that is probably more appreciated by people who already know the subject than by those who are about to learn it, so we will use a somewhat expanded scheme to organize the fundamental concepts of chemical science. But if you need a single-sentence"definition of Chemistry, this one wraps it up pretty well:
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