DNA Transcription and Protein Synthesis
DNA, DNA Replication, Sequencing and Mutation
Proteins are assembled on ribosomes,
and ribosomes are made of
several dozen proteins as well as rRNA.
are produced by
copying part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA
complementary sequence in RNA
This process is called
, which is
to the DNA polymerase in
binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands.
DNA ligase- Fills gaps in new DNA strand (part of step 2) Rate of DNA Replication:
If the largest human chromosome were to use only 1 site of replication it would take 53 days.
How many days does it take to regenerate a skin cell?
At first scientists didn't know how DNA replicated.What do you think?
In prokaryotic chromosomes (Bacteria)- only 1 site of replication There is a lot that the cell has to get right.
Sometimes errors in DNA replication can occur-
These are called Mutations
Sometimes mutations can be fixed, sometimes they can't
Some mutations cause cancer 1 in 10,000 errors occur
DNA polymerase repairs errors
Only @ 1 in 1,000,000 mutations don't get fixed Many mutations in somatic cells of your body don't affect you
When mutations are in germ cells (sex cells) genetic disorders get passed on.
-Where DNA strands separate --Forms upside down "Y" Step 2:
DNA polymerase- Enzymes that
Add complementary nucleotides As new strand grows:
1) Covalent bonds are formed between deoxyribose sugar and phosphate
2) Hydrogen bonds between complementary nigrogenous bases.
What are the differences between DNA replication and ..
"word" in mRNA
is known as a
consecutive nucleotides that specify a
single amino acid
that is to be
For example, consider the following RNA sequence:
It would be read three bases at a time:
And these three codons represent the different amino acids:
UCG- CAC- GGU
Because there are
four different bases,
possible three-based codons (4x4x4 =64)
This wheel shows all 64 possible codons of the genetic code.
Some amino acids
can be specified by
more than one codon.
You start at the center of the circle and move outwards to find the amino acid.
There is also one codon,
, that can either specify for the
amino acid methionine
or serve as the
for protein synthesis.
There are also
three "stop" codons
any amino acid.
4 possible nitrogenous bases in DNA
2 are purines: Adenine and Guanine
2 are pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine Complementary Base Pairs:
Adenine pairs with Thymine
Cytosine pairs with Guanine Base Sequence= Order of Nitrogenous bases on a chain of DNA One chain of DNA is complementary to the other chain A=T
C=G Sugar-phosphate backbone Complementary
base pairs DNA Replication DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-
Template that directs what traits
should be based off of parent's traits Process by which DNA is copied in a cell before a cell divides by mitosis, meiosis, or binary fission.
difference between coding and non-coding DNA?
The main difference between DNA replication and ..
Difference between DNA replication & protein ..
In DNA replications the two strands of DNA, now divided, create a new DNA chain
DNA replication and protein synthesis?
Transcription and DNA replication both involve making copies of the DNA in a cell
Multiple Choice Questions on DNA Replication - MCQ …
in DNA cause transcription to
when the new RNA molecule is
Our DNA contains
sequences of nucleotides
not involved in coding for proteins.
code for proteins
because they are
in the synthesis of proteins.
introns are cut out of RNA
molecules while they are still in the
spliced back together
to form the
final strand of mRNA.
The Genetic Code
are made by
joining amino acids
Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis
Humans have roughly 22,000 genes.
The first step in decoding these genetic messages is to copy part of the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA, or ribonucleic acid.
These RNA molecules contain coded information for making proteins
consists of a long chain of nucleotides,
and is made up of the
same things as DNA
(a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base)
for one small difference:
the sugar group in RNA is ribose.
RNA also differs from DNA
in the fact that it is
single stranded, and has the base uracil instead of thymine
(therefore, in RNA
A bonds with U
RNA is like a
segment of DNA
In many cases, an
RNA molecule is a working copy of a single gene.
The ability to
copy a single DNA sequence into RNA
makes it possible for a
single gene to produce hundreds or even thousands of RNA molecules
three main types
1.) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2.) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3.) transfer RNA (tRNA)
The job of
messenger RNA (mRNA)
carry copies of instructions
assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA
to the rest of the cell
The job of
transfer RNA (tRNA)
transfer, or move, amino acids to ribosomes
The job of
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
make up the major part of ribosomes.
asked in DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis by Lifeeasy Biology
DNA contains deoxyribose---RNA contains ribose
DNA contains Thymine------RNA contains Uracil
This means that instead of A = T, A = U
DNA is double stranded------RNA is single stranded
DNA is longer than RNA 3 types of RNA
Transfer RNA Messenger RNA
Carries genetic message
(instructions) from DNA
to make protein Ribosomal RNA-
Part of structure of ribosomes tRNA- Transfers amino acids
to the ribosome to make protein RNA (ribonucleic acid)-
Transcribes (reads) DNA
and translates information to proteins Proteins- Express the information from RNA The difference between DNA and RNA 2 main parts of Protein synthesis Transcription Transcription:
When instructions are rewritten from DNA to RNA.
-Takes place in nucleus Step 1: Initiation
RNA polymerase binds to promoter (a specific nucelotide sequence of DNA)
-DNA begins to unwind.
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