produced by plants by the process of photosynthesis.
Below is a diagram of the photosynthetic process in grass. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
During photosynthesis plants ..
The , which began 443 mya, is short for the , lasting “only” 24 million years and ending about 419 mya. The Silurian was another relatively hot period with shallow tropical seas, but . But the ice caps eventually shrank, which played havoc with the sea level and caused minor extinction events (, , ), the last of which ended the Silurian and also created more Middle East oil deposits. Reefs made a big comeback, extending as far as 50 degrees north latitude (farther north than where I live in ). According to the model, oxygen levels rose greatly during the Silurian and rebounded from a low in the mid-Ordovician; it may have reached 25% by the early Devonian, which followed the Silurian. Coincident with rising oxygen levels, more giants appeared. Scorpion-like were the largest arthropods ever, and the near the Devonian’s oxygen highpoint. The first land-dwelling animals - , , and - came ashore during the Silurian between 430 mya and 420 mya. The appeared and of the first insects ., Donald Canfield believed that the gigantism among arthropods and other oxygen effects were due to Earth's atmosphere beginning to reach modern levels for the first time in the eon of complex life, not that it reached higher than modern levels. I expect the oxygen controversy to outlive me.
Some of this water becomes (temporarily) incorporated into the cells
have a vast surface area of leaves to catch enough sunlight for photosynthesis and these leaves need carbon dioxide which is
reacted with water to form the organic building blocks of the plant's cells, using the energy harnessed by sunlight.
How do plants do photosynthesis during winter?
As repeatedly seen in the historical era, if a new technology enabled great numbers of animals to be killed, hunters quickly adopted the practice of killing the most animals that they could and harvested only the choicest cuts, as with bison tongues in North America. The by American “pioneers.” When Indians obtained horses from Europeans, they too killed all the bison that they could, and stampeding them off cliffs was a common practice for thousands of years and accelerated when horses made the job easier. Some Indians used all parts of a bison, but that seemed a minority practice, particularly after horses made hunting far easier, and was probably economically mandated. Cultural differences between Plains tribes began disappearing with the radical changes that horses and firearms brought to bison hunting, and stealing horses from neighboring tribes became a predilection. Even today in 2015, fisherman procuring shark fins for soup just , which is driving shark species to extinction.
In today’s hunter-gatherer societies, the EROI for killing large animals dwarfs all other food sources. The EROI, of calories produced divided by those burned during the hours of labor invested, for large game (a deer, for example), is more than 100, and on average four times that of small game, fifteen times that of birds, about eight times that of roots and tubers, and 10-15 times that of seeds and nuts. The hunter-gatherer EROI for seeds, nuts, and birds is around ten-to-one. An average-sized adult African elephant carcass provides about 13 million calories, which would sustain a band of 12 people for a year if they could eat it all before it rotted and did not die of protein poisoning. The EROI for those easily killed proboscideans when humans invaded the Western Hemisphere could have been in the hundreds and even more than one thousand. Large animals have always been the mother lode of hunter-gatherer peoples, and the consensus among anthropologists is that no instincts urge a hunter to kill only what is needed, but a hunter will kill whatever he can. That finding partly derives from studying modern hunter-gatherers. There is no doubt that when early humans intruded into environments that never before encountered humans, where animals would have had no intrinsic fear of humans, people would have had an exceptionally easy time killing all large animals encountered. Animals without experience around humans, such as Antarctic penguins, are easily approached and killed. As happened innumerable times in the historical era, intruding humans killed all the naïve animals that they could. The only animals that survived developed a healthy fear of humans and avoided them, but how many could develop that fear before they were all killed? From the very beginning of the , . More than 500 million years later, a new kind of animal appeared that turned that advantage into a fatal disadvantage, as it found a way to mine that energy stored in large animals, and it quickly plundered it to exhaustion whenever it could.
photosynthesis notes - Biology Junction
The human nuclear family was a change from ape social organization, which gave more males an opportunity to procreate, but it is also an economic institution, as have been extended families and the like. Family and clan organization . What will happen to family structures with FE and abundance? Bearing children is hard on a woman, and it is difficult to imagine a population explosion with FE and abundance, as women will have better things to do than become baby factories. Maybe the human population will significantly decline in a continuance of today’s , but even if it rose, since humanity will not place a burden on Earth’s ecosystems, it would not matter as it does today.
I eventually carried Brian's spears, and they were fortunately much lighter than Dennis’s. In 2001, as we were when trying to interest California's governor in alternative energy as , which caused the governor to lose his job, Brian told me how his ride as Paul Revere went: he , as all that he received were . I sadly understood his query. It was a fair question, and forms the crux of the . During that same conversation, when I , his response was nearly, “So, what else is new?” Few fellow travelers played near our level (not many survive for long in those environments), but when we encountered them and traded notes, they all described similar terrain. Everybody that I most respected in the FE and related milieus began their journeys as , not rebels or opportunists.
Ecosystem Services - Water Purification - Science NetLinks
Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …
During photosynthesis, water evaporates from the surface of the leaves in a process called transpiration.
Version 1.0 published September 2014
In this article, we'll explore the light-dependent reactions as they take place during photosynthesis in plants
Plant Energy Transformations-Photosynthesis
Efficient Use of Water in the Garden and Landscape | …
Humans are the large-brained, allegedly sentient species that dominates Earth, and humans have greatly altered evolutionary processes, down to “engineering” the DNA of organisms. We have a “nature” and multi-billion year heritage, as any organism does. How much have we changed ours, and how much do our natures really matter? Can we consciously change our natures or overcome them? The nature/nurture debate is quite old, and as the domestication of plants and animals has demonstrated, or the , nurture can nature by selective breeding at the least. The , as an experiment, and the changes were dramatic. There is plenty about humanity that is nature at work, such as a child's acquisition of language or the urge to procreate (and the related ). Also, a great deal is socially learned. At least half of the variance in human traits such as intelligence and personality has been attributed to genetics, and nearly all the rest is socialization by the peer group (I believe that the , and the guiding role, but that is not scientifically demonstrable, at least today). But few of those scientific findings regarding human nature, if any of them, are relevant to why imperial "entertainment" is no longer . The improvement in standard of living due to increased energy consumption has precipitated many changes in what was once considered human "nature," such as . In a , would the dominant ideologies exalt and ?
Carp love weed what role weeds plays for carp
All of those hard-to-believe events aside, I became a student of genius while under my first professional mentor’s tutelage. The sold me on him (as well as that voice leading me to him), but when I to help rebuild his effort, it quickly became evident that I was learning from another world-class genius, and I avidly studied his efforts. As far as I know, is the greatest attempt yet made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. He probably did his most interesting work before I met him. He invented the , and his were awe-inspiring. Dennis was an untrained businessman, but his ability to erect a disruptive energy technology company with no capital and create the entire process, from developing the technology to building it, marketing it, and installing it, is the best that I have ever seen or heard of, and his public image rarely even touched upon his unparalleled talent in that area. Yet those abilities paled beside his other qualifications, which . That voice knew what it was doing in leading me to Dennis, but playing Indiana Jones’s sidekick was not an easy ride, and I have generally rejected Dennis’s entreaties to rejoin him after I . Even as I write this, I know that our story seems ridiculously fanciful, but it all happened and more, with connections and events I am not at liberty to publicly disclose that makes journey resemble . As dramatic as those events were, our focus was always on bringing FE to the world.
Pearson - The Biology Place - Prentice Hall Bridge page
but the pollution will inflict an awesome price on Canada, as the tar sands region becomes a "national sacrifice zone." That low EROI reflects highly detrimental impacts. A huge proportion of Canada's natural gas supply will be needed for , and multi-billion-dollar pipelines and other infrastructure projects are proceeding (but delayed in 2015). Beleaguered Canadian Native American nations are overwhelmed by the industrial initiatives, which are . I heard from local friends in the summer of 2014 that the projected pipeline to the nearby waters of British Columbia will present great environmental risk, and the only question is not disastrous oil spills will happen, but , , and they will be. One of Earth's most diverse aquatic ecosystems will be put at risk (Puget Sound is in second place, next to the Great Barrier Reef).
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