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Evidence for the Asteroid Impact Hypothesis

Our preliminary conclusions therefore appear to support thehypothesis of very recent volcanism on Mars.

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Arguments in Favor of the Volcanism Hypothesis: ARGUMENT ..

Chimpanzees are the most tool-using non-human great ape, and . One problem with studying today’s animals and applying those findings to their ancestors is that their line has evolved too. The did not look like today’s chimpanzees, and probably did not act quite like them. However, chimpanzees and gorillas adapted to environments that have not remarkably changed for the past 8-10 million years, and it is unlikely that they have dramatically changed over that time. Orangutans are similar. Scientists have argued that since there is little evidence of morphological change in those great apes in the intervening years since they split from the human line, particularly in their cranial capacity, that they probably act similarly today and have similar capacities to their distant ancestors. Today’s chimps have . They make and use tools, and an . All great apes have and some even .

Thus there is strong evidence for short-lived but gigantic volcanic eruptions at the K-T boundary.

In the end, is the most meaningful standard of living measure. Declining total available energy and declining EROI contribute to a declining energy surplus. Most people have some understanding of hunger, and if they have experienced blackouts, brownouts, or gas shortages, they have keenly felt the loss of energy. But the decline of industrial civilization has many other signs that comfortable Westerners can have difficulty grasping, and the following examples are intended to make it clearer.

Evidence of Volcanism and Glaciation from the Sausar …

Below are examples of the only three kinds of dinosaurs known. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

A careful estimate as of 2013 determined that humanity has reduced Earth’s plant-based biomass by more than a third since the beginnings of agriculture. Humanity certainly could not have industrialized by using wood. Arguments making the case that deforestation was not why coal was adopted in England are shaky and also irrelevant to the fact that England could not have industrialized with wood. Iron operations regularly shut down during England’s early industrial history due to wood shortages. The economics of coal were evident to even imperial Romans, but nobody would use coal if they could avoid it. Some until the late 19th century. But using sunlight energy captured during the tree’s life could not compete for long with mining ancient sunlight trapped in coal that was collected over tens of millions of years, even if nobody initially knew how coal was formed. Even today, the British Isles’ grassy hills provide austere evidence of the rampant deforestation that those lands have yet to recover from. That the British Isles have any woods at all is a testament to using fossil fuels to power the Industrial Revolution.

No historian has argued that England had a grand plan of industrialization, but the Epochal Event was the culmination of several trends. Although the science of energy had yet to be invented, the obvious advantages of watermills, windmills, and sailing ships were not lost on people, and the control of arable land, forests, low-energy transportation lanes, workforces, and markets was always the road to riches from onward. People knew what they were doing, even if they had little or no long-term perspective.

Evidence of Mansfield's Earth Formation Hypothesis.

The fossils do provide us with real evidence about the K-T extinction events, instead of inferences from analogy or from computer models.

The genetic testing that has been performed on humanity in the past generation has shown that the founder group’s pattern of migration was to continually spread out, and once the original settlement covered the continents, people did not move much at all, at least until Europe began conquering the world (and there were some ). There is little sign of warfare in those early days of migration, and the leading hypothesis is that people moved to the next valley rather than be close enough to fight each other. Any conflict would have been easily resolved by moving farther out, where more easily killed animals lived. Also, in those virgin continents, people need not have roamed far to obtain food. Today, an !Kung woman will carry her child more than 7,000 kilometers before the child can walk for himself/herself. If an !Kung woman bears twins, it is her duty to pick which child to murder, because she cannot afford to carry two. That demonstrates the limitations of today’s hunter-gatherer lifestyle, but in those halcyonic days of invading virgin continents (which had to be the Golden Age of the Hunter-Gatherer), those kinds of practices probably waned and bands grew fast. When they they split, and the new group moved to new lands where the animals, again, never saw people before. Unlike the case with humans, there would not have been a grapevine so that animals told their neighbors about the new super-predator. The first time that those megafauna saw humans was probably their last time. It is very likely, just as with all predators for all time, and as can be seen with historical hunting events such or , that those bands soon took to killing animals, harvesting the best parts, and moving on. To them it would not have been a “blitzkrieg,” but more like kids in candy stores. After a few thousand years of grabbing meat whenever the fancy took them, or perhaps less, those halcyonic days were over as the far coasts of Australia were reached and the easy meat was gone. When that land bridge formed to Tasmania about 43 kya, people crossed and were able to , until all the megafauna was gone on Tasmania. They also may have worked their way through the food chain, in which the first kills were the true mother lode. Nobody even deigned to raise a spear at anything less than a until they were gone. Then they started killing smaller prey, which eventually did wise up and were harder to kill, so humans had to work at it again and the brief golden age was over. The as they shaped the new continent to their liking, maybe recreating the savanna conditions that they left in Africa, may have also been used to flush out animals if they began to avoid humans.

By about 45-40 kya, that northward migrating band from the founder group reached Europe. Although the exact route is in dispute, the supports the idea that the group originated from a migration into the , probably via the east end of the Arabian Peninsula. Those invaders are called Cro-Magnons today. When they reached the Levant, they began , and Neanderthals began disappearing. The process took several thousand years at minimum, and has been called a border war with Neanderthals, while others have called it a genetic assimilation. The way that humans drove the megafauna to extinction, and then engaged in warfare as they were driving the megafauna extinction, seems to favor a violent end for Neanderthals, and the “blitzkrieg” of humans migrating across the length and breadth of Australia in a few thousand years was not in evidence for the migration/invasion around the Mediterranean’s periphery. Neanderthals (nor ), do not seem to have gone quietly or easily and may have been the biggest obstacle to Earth’s conquest by behaviorally modern humans.

Birds, tortoises, and mammals live on land and breathe air: the evidence from the K-T boundary shows that they survived the K-T boundary event.
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  • Testing the Hypothesis of Young Martian Volcanism: …

    Evidence for volcanism triggering extinctions: A short history of IPGP contributions withemphasis on paleomagnetism

  • Testing the Hypothesis of Young Martian Volcanism: ..

    Many believe the K/T boundary marks the post-Flood boundary because of the evidence from volcanism and plate ..

  • Evolution: Extinction: What Killed the Dinosaurs ? - PBS

    Asteroid/Comet Impact Craters and Mass Extinctions and Shiva Hypothesis of Periodic Mass Extinctions

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18/01/2018 · What Killed the Dinosaurs

Anthropologists and primate researchers , but relatively recent scientific findings have disproven that notion. , and it is more sophisticated with great apes. It took a few million years after the human/chimp split for our ancestors to learn to , and that culture then spread widely in Africa. The , , and were probably all closely related and at least partly interdependent, but little seemed to change . Then the and possessed a larger brain, and new tools and behaviors are evident . The timeframes continually shrank between major events in the human journey. Only 200 thousand years later, and , and new behaviors are in evidence. Only 100 thousand years after that, anatomically modern humans appeared. Only 30 thousand years after that, about 170 kya, , probably due to necessity, where life once again was eked out on the margins, and those humans may have decorated their bodies. About 100 kya, innovation seems to have accelerated again, and by 75-60 kya there is evidence of . Needles and perhaps even arrowheads first appeared about 60 kya. There is no doubt among scientists that members of made those advances, and their artifacts provided evidence of increasing cultural and technical sophistication, which soon left Neanderthals and all other land animals far behind. About 75-70 kya, a , and there is controversy today whether that eruption was partly responsible for the that passed through not long afterward. What became today’s humanity seems to have nearly gone extinct at that bottleneck.

Impacts and flood basalts - Mantle plume

Whatever the case may be, it appears clear that the population in Africa and Neanderthal population in Europe and the Middle East were isolated for tens of thousands of years, perhaps far more than 100,000 years, and humans used a toolkit like the Neanderthals’ until something happened between 70 and 50 kya. Just happened is a matter of great controversy, and in recent years, several disciplines have converged on the issue and are drawing a clearer picture today. Some key findings that shed light came from global DNA studies, linguistics partnering with evolutionary theory, and brain studies. In the past generation, as has been applied to many areas, a startling picture of the human journey has emerged. , probably for flexible power generation. For animals that reproduce sexually, the mother’s mitochondria are passed to her offspring, while virtually none comes from the father, if any. Geneticists can measure mutations in and approximate when two different animals shared a common ancestor, whether they belong to the same species or not. Similarly, regarding nuclear DNA, the produces a male mammal, and mutations in the Y chromosome can also be analyzed to estimate when two men shared the same ancestor. , but scientists have been aligning DNA results with fossil dates, which are considered more reliable, and have been resolving some limitations. But if the timing is suspect for such genetic analyses, far more confidence exists for descent relationships. Human DNA testing is a burgeoning business, used for everything from freeing to to examining the genetic heritage of the .

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