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Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis in Southwest Asia

A hypothesis statement would be the outcome of formal functional assessment procedures.

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The 'Replacement' or 'Out of Africa 2' Hypothesis

The out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis has been hotly debated. The main alternative theory is a multiregional hypothesis, credited to Australian fossil researcher Milford Wolpoff, who says that human populations in both Africa and Eurasia contributed to the evolution of anatomically modern humans (Figure 1; Wolpoff , 2000).

The 'Replacement' or 'Out of Africa 2' Hypothesis ..

One of the seminal papers examining the use of mtDNA to track human was published in 1987. In this paper, Cann . considered patterns in human mtDNA samples from five different geographical regions that spanned the globe. By examining certain polymorphisms in these samples, Cann and colleagues identified 133 mitochondrial haplotypes. Using this information, the researchers concluded that the evolutionary tree of mtDNA has its roots in Africa, and that the branches of this tree are short enough to hypothesize that all humans have a fairly recent common ancestor (sometimes called "mitochondrial Eve").

Genetic Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis …

Indeed, many human subpopulations carry distinct markers, and by tracing these markers through the generations, one can draw a genetic tree on which today's many diverse branches can be followed to their common African root. Thus, the surprising thing about Cann 's results is not that all people have a common root, but rather how recent this root appears to be. Specifically, Cann and colleagues hypothesized that the ancestress of all of modern humanity lived only 200,000 years ago, rather than more than a million years ago, when primitive humans first walked the earth. According to Cann , humans who lived elsewhere in the world at the time of mitochondrial Eve were completely replaced by her descendants - modern-form humans - migrating out of Africa 100,000 years ago.

There are two theories about the origin of modern humans: 1) they arose in one place—Africa—and 2) premodern humans migrated from Africa to become modern humans in other parts of the world. Most evidence points to the first theory because

New Research Confirms 'Out Of Africa' Theory Of …

Enter the trellis put forth by Alan Templeton (Figure 2). This model accepts an African origin of the human , but it argues that this origin predates a hypothetical mitochondrial Eve, occurring approximately 1.7 million years ago. After that, multiple migrations out of Africa occurred, but the human race was never completely replaced by a single tribe. Moreover, once the three major populations (African, Asian, and European) branched out, they did not evolve in isolation. Rather, periodic movement of subpopulations allowed some genes to flow among the groups. This movement of genes accounts for Templeton's trellis design, which features lateral connections between vertical evolutionary lineages.

In contrast, the Out of Africa Model13 asserts that modern humans evolved relatively recently in Africa, migrated into Eurasia and replaced all populations which had descended from Homo erectus. Critical to this model are the following tenets:

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  • Genetic Evidence For Theories Of Human ..

    there is actually little genetic support for the out-of-Africa replacement hypothesis

  • Genetic Evidence For Theories Of Human Dispersal ..

    Analysis in support of the Out of Africa model, by Dr. Donald Johanson.

  • We examined genetic variation within ..

    Out of Africa I: null ..

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The recent African origin of modern humans, ..

The multiregional view posits that genes from all human populations of the Old World flowed between different regions and by mixing together, contributed to what we see today as fully modern humans. The replacement hypothesis suggests that the genes in fully modern humans all came out of Africa. As these peoples migrated they replaced all other human populations with little or no interbreeding.

(RSOH), replacement hypothesis, ..

Though the effects of a typical meal are quantitatively less than those of doses of those drugs, most modern humans experience them several times a day, every day of their adult lives.

When this scenario of human dietary practices is viewed in the light of the problem of the origin of agriculture described earlier, it suggests an hypothesis that combines the results of these lines of enquiry.

Exorphin researchers, perhaps lacking a long-term historical perspective, have generally not investigated the possibility that these foods really are drug-like, and have instead searched without success for exorphin's natural function.

The Y Chromosome and the Replacement Hypothesis - Science

That is, major civilisations (in south-west Asia, Europe, India, and east and parts of South-East Asia; central and parts of north and south America; Egypt, Ethiopia and parts of tropical and west Africa) stemmed from groups which practised cereal, particularly wheat, agriculture (Bender 1975:12, Adams 1987:201, Thatcher 1987:212).

a single genetic locus in the ..

(The rarer nomadic civilisations were based on dairy farming.)

Groups which practised vegeculture (of fruits, tubers etc.), or no agriculture (in tropical and south Africa, north and central Asia, Australia, New Guinea and the Pacific, and much of north and south America) did not become civilised to the same extent.

Thus major civilisations have in common that their populations were frequent ingesters of exorphins.

Genetics and recent human evolution.

Neanderthals have contributed approximately 1-4% of the genomes of non-African modern humans, although a modern human who lived about 40,000 years ago has been found to have between 6-9% Neanderthal DNA (Fu et al 2015). The evidence we have of Neanderthal-modern human interbreeding sheds light on the expansion of modern humans out of Africa. These new discoveries refute many previous hypotheses in which anatomically modern humans replaced archaic hominins, like Neanderthals, without any interbreeding. However, even with some interbreeding between modern humans and now-extinct hominins, most of our genome still derives from Africa. Neanderthals could not have contributed to modern African peoples’ genomes because Neanderthals evolved and lived exclusively in Eurasia and therefore could not have bred with the humans living in Africa at that time.

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