How to Prioritize Hypothesis – Knowledge Base
Core knowledge hypothesis by Mary Findlay - issuu
Knowledge gap hypothesis | Psychology Wiki | …
: In everyday language, the word usually refers to an educated guess or an idea that we are quite uncertain about. Scientific hypotheses, however, are much more informed than any guess and are usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary observations, and logic. In addition, hypotheses are often supported by many different lines of evidence in which case, scientists are more confident in them than they would be in any mere "guess." To further complicate matters, science textbooks frequently misuse the term in a slightly different way. They may ask students to make a about the outcome of an experiment (e.g., table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt will). This is simply a prediction or a guess (even if a well-informed one) about the outcome of an experiment. Scientific hypotheses, on the other hand, have explanatory power they are explanations for phenomena. The idea that table salt dissolves faster than rock salt is not very hypothesis-like because it is not very explanatory. A more scientific (i.e., more explanatory) hypothesis might be "The amount of surface area a substance has affects how quickly it can dissolve. More surface area means a faster rate of dissolution." This hypothesis has some explanatory power it gives us an idea of a particular phenomenon occurs and it is testable because it generates expectations about what we should observe in different situations. If the hypothesis is accurate, then we'd expect that, for example, sugar processed to a powder should dissolve more quickly than granular sugar. Students could examine rates of dissolution of many different substances in powdered, granular, and pellet form to further test the idea. The statement "Table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt" is not a hypothesis, but an expectation generated by a hypothesis. Textbooks and science labs can lead to confusions about the difference between a hypothesis and an expectation regarding the outcome of a scientific test. To learn more about scientific hypotheses, visit in our section on how science works.
Third, how does all of that help us find a reply to the BIVargument? Contextualists view the BIV argument as presenting us with aparadox. We think it's crazy to deny knowledge of our hands. At thesame time, we don't think one can know that one isn't a BIV. How canthe conflict between these thoughts be resolved? Contextualists proposeto resolve it by saying this: In low standard contexts (when skepticalhypotheses are not salient), the first premise and the conclusion ofthe BIV argument are both false. In such contexts, a speaker who says"You don't know that you have hands" or "You don't know that you arenot a BIV" is mistaken. The speaker is mistaken because we do in factmeet low standards of knowledge. So relative to what we meanby ‘know’ in such contexts, we know that we have hands andthat we are not BIVs. However, in high standard contexts (when an errorpossibility such as being a BIV is salient), the first premise and theconclusion of the BIV argument are both true. Now, when speakers say"You don't know that you have hands" or "You don't know that you arenot a BIV", they are correct, for with regard to having hands and beingor not being a BIV, our epistemic position is not strong enough for usto meet high standards of knowledge. Therefore, relative to what wemean by ‘know’ when we are confronted with a salient errorpossibility such as being a BIV, we know neither that we have hands northat we are not BIVs.
Domain Knowledge and Hypothesis Genenation in …
CORRECTION: This misconception is based on the idea of falsification, philosopher Karl Popper's influential account of scientific justification, which suggests that all science can do is reject, or falsify, hypotheses that science cannot find evidence that one idea over others. Falsification was a popular philosophical doctrine especially with scientists but it was soon recognized that falsification wasn't a very complete or accurate picture of how scientific knowledge is built. In science, ideas can never be completely proved or completely disproved. Instead, science accepts or rejects ideas based on supporting and refuting evidence, and may revise those conclusions if warranted by new evidence or perspectives.
CORRECTION: Perhaps because the last step of the Scientific Method is usually "draw a conclusion," it's easy to imagine that studies that don't reach a clear conclusion must not be scientific or important. In fact, scientific studies don't reach "firm" conclusions. Scientific articles usually end with a discussion of the limitations of the tests performed and the alternative hypotheses that might account for the phenomenon. That's the nature of scientific knowledge it's inherently tentative and could be overturned if new evidence, new interpretations, or a better explanation come along. In science, studies that carefully analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the test performed and of the different alternative explanations are particularly valuable since they encourage others to more thoroughly scrutinize the ideas and evidence and to develop new ways to test the ideas. To learn more about publishing and scrutiny in science, visit our discussion of .
The Knowledge Gap Hypothesis: Twenty-Five Years …
Hypothesis - Share and Discover Knowledge on …
Quiz & Worksheet - Knowledge Gap Hypothesis | …
The role of domain knowledge in the process of hypothesis generation during diagnostic reasoning was examined
Knowledge Argument Against Physicalism | Internet …
Hypothesis | Definition of Hypothesis by Merriam-Webster
Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Deduction & Induction
Define hypothesis: an assumption or concession made for the sake of argument — hypothesis in a sentence
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