Low temperature effects on photosynthesis and growth of grapevine
795–809 Low temperature effects on photosynthesis and growth of ..
Low Temperature effects on Photosynthesis and Growth …
Signs of inorganic fluoride phytotoxicity (fluorosis), such as chlorosis, necrosis and decreased growth rates, are most likely to occur in the young, expanding tissues of broadleaf plants and elongating needles of conifers. The induction of fluorosis has been clearly demonstrated in laboratory, greenhouse and controlled field plot experiments. A large number of the papers published on fluoride toxicity to plants concern glasshouse fumigation with hydrogen fluoride. Foliar necrosis was first observed on grapevines () exposed to 0.17 and 0.27 µg/m3 after 99 and 83 days, respectively. The lowest-observed-effect level for leaf necrosis (65% of leaves) in the snow princess gladiolus () was 0.35 µg fluoride/m3. Airborne fluoride can also affect plant disease development, although the type and magnitude of the effects are dependent on the specific plant–pathogen combination.
A new study indicates that the effect of low air humidity been an underestimated cause of plant stress during drought. Closed stomates will consequently mean less photosynthesis and growth. Source: [Consider how much better plants respond to rainy weather compared to artificial watering - Editor]
Growth and photosynthesis of grapevine ..
Pruning grapevines to raise the fruit higher above the groundprovides some frost protection because temperature typically increases withheight above the ground during radiation frost nights. In some instances,raising the fruit by 0.3 to 0.5 m can increase the temperature by 1 °C or 2°C. Canopy density and pruning can affect the frost sensitivity ofdeciduous trees. Closed canopies at high density indirectly increase frostdamage sensitivity because of reductions in photosynthesis and hence sugaraccumulation lower in the canopy where it is colder.
Vegetative mulches reduce the transfer of heat into the soiland hence make crops more frost prone. Snyder, Pherson and Hatfield (1981)investigated the effect of leaf litter removal on minimum temperatures in citrusorchards and found that there was no benefit from removing leaf litter undercitrus trees. However, when litter was removed from between the rows as well asfrom under the trees, O'Connell and Snyder (1999) found that litter removal wasbeneficial. Part of the difference between the two experiments was attributed todifferences in pruning of the trees. After the first experiment, growers beganto prune the tree skirts to allow more sunlight to the orchard floor under thetrees. Based on these experiments, the removal of leaf litter from the middlesbetween tree rows may have some benefit for frost protection.
Low temperature effects on grapevine photosynthesis: …
Cooke (1976) studied the effect of fluoride (200 mg/litre) on common sunflower () seeds grown in sand culture. No effect on total dry weight was observed; however, there were significant reductions in leaf growth. Keller (1980) grew Norway spruce () cuttings in sand and watered with 100 mg fluoride/litre during winter until bud break. Watering with sodium fluoride significantly depressed the carbon dioxide uptake of shoots. Although the previous year’s needles did not show signs of injury, most of the new needles were killed immediately after flushing with fluoride. Exposure to fluoride significantly increased the susceptibility of plants to sulfur dioxide in subsequent fumigation experiments. Zwiazek & Shay (1987) grew jack pine () seedlings in sand culture at 3 or 15 mg fluoride/kg dry weight. Wilting was the first sign of fluoride injury and occurred in approximately 50% of plants after 25–26 h at 15 mg fluoride/kg and 2–6 h later in only 7% of plants exposed to 3 mg/kg. Fluoride-induced injuries to mesophyll and guard cells were similar to those caused by drought and included the appearance of lipid material in the cytoplasm during early stages of injury, suggesting cell membrane damage. Plants exposed to 3 mg/kg for up to 168 h showed significant reductions in water content. Respiration was significantly reduced after 24 h, but not after longer exposure times, while photosynthetic oxygen release was significantly reduced at 48 and 91 h but had recovered after 168 h (Zwiazek & Shay, 1988a). Zwiazek & Shay (1988b) reported that 3 mg fluoride/kg significantly reduced growth (as measured by fresh weight) and acid phosphatase activity and increased total organic acid content of jack pine () seedlings.
Antia & Klut (1981) exposed five euryhaline phytoplankton species to fluoride concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/litre (14–15% salinity). The growth rate and maximum growth density of the chlorophyte and the diatom were unaffected at all exposure concentrations. The growth of the diatom appeared to be stimulated by the presence of fluoride. The haptophyte was 35–50% inhibited at fluoride concentrations of >150 mg/litre. The dinoflagellate was 20–25% inhibited at 150 mg/litre and more than 90% inhibited at 200 mg/litre. Hekman et al. (1984) studied the effect of dissolved fluoride concentrations of up to 150 mg/litre on six phytoplankton species. Growth and photosynthetic oxygen evolution were unaffected at fluoride concentrations up to 50 mg/litre in all algae except growth ceased for a period followed by growth at a reduced rate at 50 mg fluoride/litre; the threshold for growth effects and inhibition of photosynthesis in this species was 25 mg/litre. Nichol et al. (1987) found that fluoride concentrations of >100 mg/litre (5.2 mmol/litre) caused a growth lag in at neutral pH. The effect of fluoride on the growth lag was pH-dependent, with the growth lag increasing with decreasing pH. At pH 5.9, there was a measurable growth lag at 5 mg fluoride/litre. Fluoride resistance was induced by prior growth in the medium at non-inhibitory levels of sodium fluoride. It was suggested that fluoride-resistant cells retain less fluoride (taken up as undissociated hydrogen fluoride) by developing increased permeability to the fluoride anion. No effect on growth of 12 species of marine phytoplankton was observed at fluoride concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 mg/litre. At the highest concentration (100 mg/litre), no effect on growth was observed in 9 of the 12 species tested; however, 25–30% inhibition of growth was found in a diatom (), a dinoflagellate () and a haptophyte () (Oliveira et al., 1978).
Low temperature effects on grapevine photosynthesis: ..
2004) Low temperature effects on photosynthesis and ..
effects of temperature on plant growth.
The photosynthetic response of grapevine leaves (Vitis vinifera L
Vegetative growth of grapevine ..
Low night temperature effects on photosynthetic performance on two grapevine ..
Photosynthetic Responses to Heat Treatments at …
The photosynthetic response of grapevine leaves ( L. cv. Riesling) to low temperature was studied to determine the role of end-product limitation and orthophosphate (Pi) recycling to the chloroplast under these conditions. As reported previously, the response of photosynthesis in air to stomatal conductance declined at temperatures below 15°C, suggesting that at low temperatures inhibition of photosynthesis in grapevine has a strong non-stomatal component. Stimulation of carbon assimilation at ambient CO2 by reducing O2 from 21 to 2 kPa, O2 declined to zero below 15°C, a phenomenon often associated with a restriction in photosynthesis due to end-product-synthesis limitation. This stimulation could be restored by feeding Pi. Photosynthesis in leaf disks at both high and low irradiances in non-photorespiratory conditions (1% CO2) was highly sensitive to reductions in temperature. Below 15°C, feeding Pi caused a large stimulation of photosynthetic O2 evolution. Metabolite measurements indicated that despite a decline in Rubisco carbamylation state, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) levels dropped at low temperature and the ratio of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) to triose phosphate (TP) remained largely unchanged. These results suggest that grapevine-leaf photosynthesis is severely restricted at low temperature by non-stomatal mechanisms. The return of Pi to the chloroplast plays an important role in this limitation but a coordinated set of regulatory processes maintain a homeostasis of phosphorylated sugar levels.
Photosynthetic Responses to Heat Treatments at ..
Very high or very low RH is not conducive for high grain yield. Under high humidity, RH is negatively correlated with grain yield of maize. The yield reduction was 144 kg/ha with an increase in one per cent of mean monthly RH. Similarly, wheat grain yield is reduced in high RH. It can be attributed to adverse effect of RH on pollination and high incidence of pests. On the contrary, increase in RH during panicle initiation to maturity increased grain yield of sorghum under low humidity conditions due to favourable influence of RH on water relations of plants and photosynthesis. With similar amount of solar radiation, crops that are grown with irrigation gives less yield compared to those grown with equal amount of 'water as rainfall. This is because the dry atmosphere, which is little affected by irrigation, independently suppresses the growth of crops.
Low temperature effects on photosynthesis and ..
Growth and photosynthesis of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) planted on two sloping cool climate vineyards were measured during the early growth season. At both vineyards, a small difference in mean minimum air temperature (1-3°C) between two microsites ac
"I have always been impressed by the quick turnaround and your thoroughness. Easily the most professional essay writing service on the web."
"Your assistance and the first class service is much appreciated. My essay reads so well and without your help I'm sure I would have been marked down again on grammar and syntax."
"Thanks again for your excellent work with my assignments. No doubts you're true experts at what you do and very approachable."
"Very professional, cheap and friendly service. Thanks for writing two important essays for me, I wouldn't have written it myself because of the tight deadline."
"Thanks for your cautious eye, attention to detail and overall superb service. Thanks to you, now I am confident that I can submit my term paper on time."
"Thank you for the GREAT work you have done. Just wanted to tell that I'm very happy with my essay and will get back with more assignments soon."