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Virtual Lab: Protein Synthesis | Labster

Protein Synthesis

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Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible - …

Genes (DNA) are generally expressed through transcription (transfer of information from DNA to RNA, e.g., synthesis of mRNA, tRNA, rRNA) and translation (transfer of information from RNA to proteins) of language of nucleic acids (mRNA) into language of proteins. Thus, the sequence of bases in DNA and RNA determine the sequence of amino acids in proteins. Some genes do not contain any information of proteins and are expressed only through transcription, e.g., tRNA, rRNA genes. This one way flow of information from DNA to RNA and finally to proteins is known as central dogma (Fig. 8.1).

Protein Synthesis - Elmhurst College

This begins with DNA in the nucleus and ends with the final protein in the cytoplasm.
To do this we need to be able to read the genetic code just as tRNA can.

Protein biosynthesis - Wikipedia

Protein synthesis is a biological process that allows individual cells to build specific proteins

But, in 1970, H. Temin in RSV (Rous Sarcome Virus) and D. Baltimore in MLV (Mouse Leukaemia Virus) independently reported the presence of reverse transcriptase (RNA directed DNA polymerase or RNA dependent DNA polymerase) enzyme which synthesizes DNA from. RNA (acts as template). These RNA viruses when infect the host cells, the genetic RNA after entering the cell first gets copied into DNA by utilizing the viral reverse transcriptase enzyme. This DNA then again directs the formation of genetic RNA (which gets encapsulated into the protein cover to form the virus particle) and the mRNA (required for protein synthesis for the formation of progeny phage particles).

Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum Protein synthesis

We can regard protein synthesis as a chemical reaction, and we shall take this approach at first

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