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Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Antibiotics

Protein synthesis is a complex, ..

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What steps in protein synthesis are inhibited by erythromycin?

The tetracyclines consist of eight related antibiotics whichare all natural products of , although some can nowbe produced semisynthetically or synthetically. Tetracycline, chlortetracyclineand doxycycline are the best known. The tetracyclines arebroad-spectrum antibiotics with a wide range of activity against bothGram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. is less sensitive but is generally susceptible to tetracyclineconcentrations that are obtainable in the bladder. The tetracyclinesact by blocking the binding of aminoacyl tRNA to the A site on theribosome. Tetracyclines inhibit protein synthesis on isolated 70S or80S (eucaryotic) ribosomes, and in both cases, their effect is on thesmall ribosomal subunit. However, most bacteria possess an activetransport system for tetracycline that will allow intracellularaccumulation of the antibiotic at concentrations 50 times as great asthat in the medium. This greatly enhances its antibacterialeffectiveness and accounts for its specificity of action, since aneffective concentration cannot be accumulated in animal cells. Thus ablood level of tetracycline which is harmless toanimal tissues can halt protein synthesis in invading bacteria.

Interferes with Protein Synthesis

Diphtheria is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that contain a bacteriophage encoding diphtheria toxin. The toxin kills cells by interrupting protein synthesis, acting on the myocardium to cause myocarditis and on the peripheral nervous system to cause neuropathy and paralysis. The severity of infection is directly related to the degree of toxin production. Cutaneous infection is often asymptomatic.

Protein Synthesis - Cipcommunity

Kanamycin and tobramycin have been reported to bindto the ribosomal 30S subunit and to prevent it from joining to the 50Ssubunitduring protein synthesis. They may have a bactericidal effect becausethisleads to cytoplasmic accumulation of dissociated 30S subunits, which isapparently lethal to the cells.

Lincomycin and clindamycin are a miscellaneous groupof proteinsynthesis inhibitors with activity similar to the macrolides. Lincomycinhas activity against Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negativebacteria (). Clindamycin is aderivative of lincomycin with the same range of antimicrobialactivity, but it is considered more effective. It is frequently used asa penicillin substitute and is effective against Gram-negativeanaerobes (e.g. ).

This prevents bacterial protein synthesis

Erythromycin acts by inhibition of protein synthesis in susceptible organisms by reversibly binding to 50S ribosomal subunits, thereby inhibiting translocation of aminoacyl transfer-RNA and inhibiting polypeptide synthesis. Antagonism has been demonstrated between erythromycin, lincomycin, chloramphenicol, and clindamycin.

Streptomycin binds to 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome,specifically to the S12 protein which is involved in the initiation ofprotein synthesis. Experimentally, streptomycin has been shown toprevent the initiation of protein synthesis by blocking the binding ofinitiator N-formylmethionine tRNA to the ribosome. It also prevents thenormal dissociation of ribosomes into their subunits, leaving themmainly in their 70S form and preventing the formation of polysomes. Theoverall effect of streptomycin seems tobe one of distorting the ribosome so that it no longer can carry outitsnormal functions. This evidently accounts for its antibacterialactivitybut does not explain its bactericidal effects, which distinguishesstreptomycinand other aminoglycosides from most other protein synthesis inhibitors.

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  • What Antibiotics Inhibit Protein Synthesis

    In this lesson we'll first review the basic steps of building new proteins through protein synthesis

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Antibiotics: Protein Synthesis, Nucleic Acid Synthesis …

The aminoglycosides are products of species and are represented by streptomycin, kanamycin,tobramycin and gentamicin. These antibiotics exert theiractivity by binding to bacterial ribosomes and preventing theinitiation of protein synthesis.

microorganisms and suppresses protein synthesis

Erythromycin inhibits protein synthesis without affecting nucleic acid synthesis. Erythromycin is usually active against the following organisms and in clinical infections: (group A β-hemolytic), Alpha-hemolytic streptococci (viridans group); including penicillinase-producing strains (methicillin-resistant staphylococci are uniformly resistant to erythromycin); (Eaton Agent, PPLO); (not all strains of this organism are susceptible at the erythromycin concentrations ordinarily achieved);

Protein Synthesis Steps - Protein Synthesis

Tetracycline Hydrochloride mode of action is as a protein synthesis inhibitor via an aminoacyl-tRNA binding mechanism to the 30S subunit. Mode of resistance is the loss of cell wall permeability.
Note, Tetracycline can lower red blood cell count and cause anemia, because of this I would not use with injured fish, as this is the last thing you want to do with a bleeding fish.

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis

Macrolides inhibit RNA-dependent protein synthesis by reversibly binding to the 50S ribosomal subunits of susceptible microorganisms. They induce dissociation of peptidyl transfer RNA (tRNA) from the ribosome during the elongation phase. Thus, RNA-dependent protein synthesis is suppressed, and bacterial growth is inhibited.


ABOUT/ USE: An easily absorbed antibiotic, it is used to treat many sensitive gram–negative and some gram–positive bacteria.
Kanamycin is a water-soluble aminoglycoside antibiotic that is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces kanamyceticus and has a very low adsorption rate in the intestine of animals including fish.
Aminoglycosides work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, causing misreading of t-RNA, leaving the bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth.
Aminoglycosides such as Kanamycin are useful in infections involving aerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Columnaris (especially when combined with Nitrofurazone).

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