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Mutations of the secondary cell wall | SpringerLink

(A) Co-expression networks of Arabidopsis and rice primary secondary cell walls."

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Mutations of the secondary cell wall

When recruited to the promoter region of the Gal4-GUS reporter gene via a fused GD domain in a protoplast transient express system, PtrMYB152 activated GUS expression, indicating that it is a transcription activator (). Consistent with this observation, real-time RT-PCR showed that some genes required for the biosynthesis of major secondary cell wall components cellulose, xylan and lignin are activated by overexpression of PtrMYB152 (), indicating that PtrMYB152 controls secondary cell biosynthesis by inducing the expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

Atmodjo on Plant cell wall: structure and biosynthesis, part of a collection of online lectures.

The cell wall contains meso-DAP but no characteristic amino acids or sugars.During the first half of second phase (1976-1985) studies on microbiological pollution of coastal areas received attention because of its importance in coastal zone management.

On-off switches for secondary cell wall biosynthesis.

T1 - Pinoresinol reductase 1 impacts lignin distribution during secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

Populus trichocarpa is a good model system for studying wood development, perenniality, phenology and ecological interactions, processes that cannot be truly evaluated in annual model plants systems, such as Arabidopsis,. With growing interests in the use of lignocellulose as a source of biomass for bioenergy, insight into the control and regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis will help guide genetic improvement strategies for energy crops, such as Populus.

In Populus, there are 192 annotated genes encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors. To date, several lines of evidence support the involvement of R2R3 MYB transcription factors in the regulation of secondary cell walls biosynthesis in poplar. First, several poplar MYB genes have been shown to be highly expressed during secondary vascular tissue formation,. Second, PttMYB21, an ortholog of Arabidopsis AtMYB46 has been shown to be expressed primarily in xylem tissues. Third, Populustrichocarpa PtrMYB03 and PtrMYB20, PtrMYB21 paralogs, were also shown to be orthologous to Arabidopsis AtMYB46 and its paralog AtMYB83 that can activate the biosynthetic pathways for cellulose, xylan and lignin when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Finally, overexpression of PtrWND2B, a NAC domain master switch transcription factor in poplar induced the expression of several poplar R2R3 MYB genes including PtrMYB03, PtrMYB018, PtrMYB20, PtrMYB21, PtrMYB028 and PtrMYB192. However, the expression of PtrMYB152 was not affected in transgenic poplar overexpressing PtrWND2B. Since PtrMYB152 and its paralog PtrMYB018 are orthologous to Arabidopsis AtMYB43 and its paralog AtMYB20, it would be of great interest to determine if PtrMYB152 is involved in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis.

Engineering secondary cell wall deposition in plants

Secondary cell wall - Biology-Online Dictionary

In summary, our study provides evidence that PtrMYB152 regulates secondary cell wall biosynthesis in way similar to that of Arabidopsis MYBs. Information gained from this study may be used to guide to genetic modification of poplars to make it an improved feedstock for biofuels.

Our data on the poplar MYB transcription factor PtrMYB152, combined with other recent studies of poplar genes encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis MYB, NAC domain, and homeodomain proteins in the secondary cell wall regulatory network support the idea that the transcription regulatory network governing secondary cell wall biosynthesis is largely conserved in poplar and Arabidopsis. summarizes these data, which indicate that for each of the known Arabidopsis transcriptional regulators, poplar orthologs with the similar functions have been identified. These transcription factors provide new tools for understanding and manipulating wood formation in poplar and other tree species. It should be noted that by examining four in-house secondary cell wall formation related transcriptomic datasets, Cassan-Wang et al identified new potential transcription factor genes that are regulated by MYB transcription factors, and are involved in cell wall biosynthesis, so it is likely that PtrMYB152 may also regulate genes encoding other transcription factors, which in turn activate some of the secondary cell well biosynthesis genes.

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Poplar has 192 annotated R2R3 MYB genes, of which only three have been shown to play a role in the regulation of secondary cell wall formation. Here we report the characterization of PtrMYB152, a poplar homolog of the Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factor AtMYB43, in the regulation of secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The expression of PtrMYB152 in secondary xylem is about 18 times of that in phloem. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of either 35S or PtrCesA8 promoters, PtrMYB152 increased secondary cell wall thickness, which is likely caused by increased lignification. Accordingly, elevated expression of genes encoding sets of enzymes in secondary wall biosynthesis were observed in transgenic plants expressing PtrMYB152. Arabidopsis protoplast transfection assays suggested that PtrMYB152 functions as a transcriptional activator. Taken together, our results suggest that PtrMYB152 may be part of a regulatory network activating expression of discrete sets of secondary cell wall biosynthesis genes.

Insulin Synthesis and Secretion - Colorado State …

In Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), there are nearly 200 genes encoding MYB transcription factors, which are classified according to the number of N-terminal DNA binding domain repeats. R2R3 MYB proteins containing two N-terminal DNA binding domain repeats are the largest MYB transcription factor subfamily with 126 members,. R2R3 MYB transcription factors control several aspects of plant growth and development. For example, GLABRA1 (GL1) and WEREWOLF (WER) are involved in determining cell fate during trichome and root hair cell differentiation, respectively,, while AtMYB77 regulates lateral root formation, and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) regulates shoot morphogenesis and leaf patterning. Recently, several R2R3 MYB transcription factors have been found to regulate secondary cell wall biosynthesis in Arabidopsis,,. Similar findings were observed in Populus spp. (poplar) and Eucalyptus spp. (Eucalyptus),,.

Insulin Synthesis and Secretion

My initial work at the Institute took a biochemical and physiological approach to understanding the accumulation of vitamin C in fruit and potato tubers. We were able to demonstrate that in addition to biosynthesis within the fruit or tuber, vitamin C was transported long distance from leaves via the phloem. Additional work involved the development of engineered yeast strains capable of vitamin C biosynthesis. I have also worked on key plant developmental programmes including bud dormancy, potato dormancy and potato . Applied work included a Scottish Enterprise funded programme developing methods for the extension of shelf-life in minimally processed (fresh-cut) fruit and vegetables.

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